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RMIT University Library - Learning Lab

Strategies for integrating references

 

There are two useful strategies for integrating references into your paragraphs:

  • reporting words
  • linking words.

Reporting words

It is important to use suitable reporting words to introduce your references. Reporting words all have different meanings so it is important to use a word that suits the meaning of the sentence.
In the example notice how the reporting word ‘predicts’ is used to indicate the future so that it fits into the meaning of this sentence.

Jones (2011, p. 23) predicts that ‘... income from Australian mining exports is likely to continue to increase in the next two years‘.

Examples of reporting words

Notice the use of different meanings of the reporting words.

Suggest (that) Recent studies outlined by Leonard et al. (1999) suggest that personality and disposition play an equally important role in motivation.
Argue (that) Leonard et al. (1999) argue that there are three elements of self perception.
Contend(s) Mullens (1994) contends that motivation to work well is usually related to job satisfaction.
Outline Recent studies outlined by Mullins (1994) suggest that personality and disposition play an equally important role in motivation.
Focus on The early theories of Maslow and McGregor (Robbins et al. 1998) focused on personal needs and wants as the basis for motivation.
Define(s) Eunson (1987, p. 67) defines motivation as 'what is important to you'.
Conclude(s) (that) Reviewing the results of the case study, Taylor (1980) concludes that the theories of job enrichment and employee motivation do work.
State He further states that there is an increasing importance on the role of autonomy and self regulation of tasks in increasing motivation.
Maintains (that) Mullins (1994) maintains that job enrichment came from Herzber's two factor theory.
Found (that) Mullins (1994) found that there is an increasing importance on the role of autonomy and self regulation of tasks in improving motivation.
Promote(s) This promotes the idea that tension and stress are important on the role of autonomy and self regulation of tasks in improving motivation.
Establish(ed) (by) As established by Csikszentmihalyi (cited in Yair 2000, p. 2) 'the more students feel in command of their learning, the more they fulfil their learning potential'.
Asserts (that) Locke's Goal Setting Theory asserts that setting specific goals tends to encourage work motivation (Robbins et al. 1998).
Show(s) Various theories of motivation show employers that there are many factors that influence employees work performance.
Claim(s) (that) Hackman and Oldham (1975) claim that people with enriched jobs, and high scores on the Job Diagnostic Survey, experienced more satisfaction and motivation.
Report(s) Mullins (1994) reports on four content theories of motivation.
Mention(s) Mullins (1994) mentions two common general criticisms of Herzberg's theory.
Address Redesigning jobs so that responsibility moved from supervisors to the workers, was an attempt to address the issues of job satisfaction (Mullins 1994)

Another useful strategy for integrating references into your writing is to use suitable linking words. These show connections between the ideas in the paragraph and help them flow.