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RMIT University Library - Learning Lab

Include references

 

Ways to reference

There are two ways to include references in your writing:

  • direct quote
  • paraphrase.

Note: This tutorial uses the Harvard Referencing System from the Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia. This is not the latest edition of Harvard. 

Easy Cite has an up-to-date guide on Harvard referencing. 
Always check your Course Guide for the correct referencing style to use.

For more detailed information about how to reference, use the Library's Easy Cite referencing tool.

Direct quote and paraphrase

Notice the page number in the direct quote and the difference in punctuation.

Direct quote

Example of direct quote
[Author name: Jones] ( [year: 2011], [page number: p 23] ) predicts that'...income from Australian mining exports is likely to continue to increase in the next two years'.

Paraphrase

Paraphrase example
Australian mining exports will probably continue to rise for at least two years ( [author name: Jones] [year: 2011]).

Example direct quotes and paraphrases

In the sample paragraph below notice how the writer uses three types of sentences:

  • Sentences in the writer's own words
  • Sentences that contain a direct quote
  • Sentences that paraphrase

How the team leader is selected also appears to affect the effectiveness of the team. The selection of the team leader is part of establishing roles within the team. It has been asserted that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team, there is more likelihood of an effective working relationship between team members (Allen & Lee 2019; Searson 2018). However, Taylor (2019) noted that more than 60% of 350 workplace teams studied operate with team leaders chosen by middle or upper management. Further, in more than half of these, the team leaders 'did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency (and thus, productivity) was compromised' (Taylor 2019, p. 56). Therefore, leader selection needs to come from within the team.

Writer's words
Topic sentence
Direct quote
Paraphrase

[Topic sentence: How the team leader is selected also appears to affect the effectiveness of the team.] [paraphrase: The selection of the team leader is part of establishing roles within the team. It has been asserted that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team, there is more likelihood of an effective working relationship between team members (Allen & Lee 2019; Searson 2018). However, Taylor (2019) noted that more than 60% of 350 workplace teams studied operate with team leaders chosen by middle or upper management.] [direct quote: Further, in more than half of these, the team leaders 'did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency (and thus, productivity) was compromised' (Taylor 2019, p.56).] [writer's words: Therefore, leader selection needs to come from within the team.]