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RMIT University Library - Learning Lab

Examples

 

Example of an integrated reference

Notice the use of the reporting phrase 'according to' and the linking words 'currently' , 'significantly' and 'consequently' .

Teams have become integral to the way in which organisations function.   Currently , much of the work of organisations relies on the output of teams (Shearer 2009).  According to  Taylor (2010), considerable resources are invested to improve group function in recognition of the importance of groups to organisational functioning.  Significantly , teams have become central to many organisations, contributing to them in many ways such as setting goals, budgeting, solving operational problems and building effective interpersonal relations.  Consequently , related benefits to organisations include reducing cost, creating new ideas and job designs, structural re-alignment and policy formulation (O’Malley 2008). 

Topic sentence
Reporting words
Linking words

[topic sentence: Teams have become integral to the way in which organisations function.] [linking word: Currently], much of the work of organisations relies on the output of teams (Shearer 2009). [reporting word: According to] Taylor (2010), considerable resources are invested to improve group function in recognition of the importance of groups to organisational functioning. [linking word: Significantly], teams have become central to many organisations, contributing to them in many ways such as setting goals, budgeting, solving operational problems and building effective interpersonal relations. [linking word: Consequently], related benefits to organisations include reducing cost, creating new ideas and job designs, structural re-alignment and policy formulation (O’Malley 2008).

Activity

Identify the topic sentence, the 2 reporting words and the 3 linking word/phrases. Click a button on the right hand side then select the correct text in the paragraph. Correct answers will stay highlighted.


Similarly, other factors can also reduce the need for a leader. Certain individual and organisational variables can act as substitutes for leadership or neutralise the leader's influence. According to Searsen (2011), data from numerous studies demonstrates that in many situations, whatever behaviour leaders exhibit is irrelevant. For example, employees' experience, training or the need for independence can neutralise the effect of leadership. Further, Searson (2011:72) asserts that these characteristics can create situations where direction and support from a leader and organisational structure are no longer required. Therefore, the need for leadership varies according to the situation.

Activity: 

Identify the topic sentence, 2 reporting words and 3 linking word/phrases in the following text: 

Text

Similarly, other factors can also reduce the need for a leader. Certain individual and organisational variables can act as substitutes for leadership or neutralise the leader's influence. According to Searsen (2011), data from numerous studies demonstrates that in many situations, whatever behaviour leaders exhibit is irrelevant. For example, employees' experience, training or the need for independence can neutralise the effect of leadership. Further, Searson (2011:72) asserts that these characteristics can create situations where direction and support from a leader and organisational structure are no longer required. Therefore, the need for leadership varies according to the situation.

Answers

Topic sentence: Similarly, other factors can also reduce the need for a leader. 
Reporting words: ‘According to’ and ‘asserts’.
Linking words/phrases: ‘For example’, ‘Further’ and ‘Therefore’.