Our actions as teachers are influenced by our theoretical views of learning. From this site you can access some of the key theorists in learning some of the key theories and some of the key learning frameworks.
There are many learning frameworks that can guide our actions in the classroom. Following the links provided to some of the more well known or influential ones including Bloom’s Taxonomy that has been used in classrooms for over forty years, and Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Websites / Portals
Learning Concepts, Approaches and Preferences
Deep and Surface Learning
Ference Marton, Roger Säljö
Roger T. Johnson, David W. Johnson,Spencer Kagan, Robert E. Slavin
- Cooperative Learning: Two heads learn better than one (paper by Johnson & Johnson, 1988)
- Ted Panitz and collaborative learning
- Cooperative Learning Center (University of Minnesota)
- Cooperative Learning (Education Research Consumer Guide, US Dept. Education)
- Kagan's Cooperative Learning Terms
- Johnson, D. & R. Johnson (1984). Circles of Learning. Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
- Johnson, D. &. Johnson, R. (1983). Learning Together and Alone, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T. & Smith, K. A. (1996). Academic controversy: Enriching college instruction through intellectual conflict. Prepared by ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, the George Washington University, in cooperation with ASHE, Association for the Study of Higher Education.
- Kagan, S (2007). Cooperative learning (Rev Australian Ed). Heatherton, Vic: Hawker Brownlow Education.
- Slavin, R. E. (1990) Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon.
Edward De Bono
- Edward De Bono (homepage)
- De Bono, E. (2004). De Bono’s thinking course. London: BBC Books.
- De Bono, E. (1990). Lateral thinking: Creativity step by step. New York: Harper & Row.
Learning Styles and Preferences
Metacognition: Thinking about thinking
Problem Based Learning (PBL)
- Problem Based Learning (PBL)
- Problem-Based Learning (WikEd; College of Education, University of Illinois)
- Video Games: A Vehicle for Problem-based Learning
- Problem-Based Learning--A Viable Addition for Secondary School Science.
- The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning (IJPBL)
- Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16, 235-266.
- Hmelo-Silver, C. E. & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1. 21-39.
- Lambros, A. (2006). Problem-based learning in middle and high school classrooms: A teacher’s guide to implementation. Heatherton, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education.
- Ronis, D. (2005). Problem-based learning for maths and science: integrating inquiry and the Internet. Hawker Brownlow Education, Heatherton, Vic.
- Savery, J. R., and Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35, 31-38.
Situated Learning / Communities of Practice
Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger
- Communities of practice: a brief introduction (Etienne Wenger)
- Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press.
Learning Theories & Theorists
Theory underpins all that we do in the classroom! There are many theories that offer to explain ‘learning’ and some are more influential than others. From this site you can access some of the common theories and theorists that underpin current practice in schools or have had a strong influence in the past.
General Websites and Portals
Learning theories and theorists
Lev Vygotsky (based on)
Stimulus Response (S-R) theorists :
Clark L. Hull, B. F. Skinner, Edward L. Thorndike
Behaviouristic theorists :
James B. Watson
Associationism theorists :
Ivan P. Pavlov, Edwin R. Guthrie
Classical Conditioning (see behaviourism)
Cognitive Learning Theory
Jerome Bruner (also Constructivism)
- Jerome Bruner A Web Overview
- Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Bruner, J. (1977). The Process of Education, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Bruner, J. (1991). Acts of Meaning, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Bruner, J, (1987). Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J.&Austin, G. (1965/1986). A study of thinking. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books
Cognitive Development Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
- Cognitive Dissonance
- Festinger, L (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, Ill; Row Peterson.
Conditions of Learning
Jerome Bruner, Jean Piaget
Constructivism - Social
Experiential Learning Theory
David Kolb, Carl Rogers, John Dewey
- Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model
- Carl Rogers’ homepage
- John Dewey, the Modern Father of Experiential Education
- Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Kolb, D. (1999). The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, Version 3. Boston: Hay Group.
- Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to Learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
- Rogers, C. R.&Freiberg, H.J. (1994). Freedom to Learn (3rd Ed). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Macmillan.
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
Holistic Learning Theory
Information Processing Theory
George A. Miller
Instrumentalism (also pragmatism)
John Dewey (also Experiential Learning)
Operant Conditioning (see also Behaviourism)
B. F. Skinner
Paulo Freire's Educational Theory
- Paulo Freire's Educational Theory
- Freire, P. (1987). Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (Trans. M. B. Ramos). New York, NY: The Continuum Publishing Corporation,
- Freire, P. (1985). The Politics of Education: Culture, Power, and Liberation, (Trans D. Macedo) London: Macmillan.
Schema theory of learning
Richard C. Anderson
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) / Scaffolding
Lev. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)