Academic writing involves using references and integrating them into your writing. This shows that you understand what you have read and can compare the ideas of different authors.
There are two ways to include references in your writing:
- direct quote
Note: This tutorial uses the Harvard Referencing System from the Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
Always check your Course Guide for the correct referencing style to use.
Direct quote and paraphrase
Notice the page number in the direct quote and the difference in punctuation.
Example direct quotes and paraphrases
In the sample paragraph below notice how the writer uses three types of sentences:
- Sentences in the writer's own words
- Sentences that contain a direct quote
- Sentences that paraphrase
How the team leader is selected also appears to affect the effectiveness of the team. The selection of the team leader is part of establishing roles within the team. It has been asserted that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team, there is more likelihood of an effective working relationship between team members (Allen & Lee 2009; Searson 2011). However, Taylor (2010, p. 56) noted that more than 60% of 350 workplace teams studied, operate with team leaders chosen by middle or upper management. Further, in more than half of these, the team leaders 'did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency (and thus, productivity) was compromised' (Taylor 2010 p. 56). Therefore, leader selection needs to come from within the team.
Topic sentence Paraphrase Direct quote Writer's words